What is the Primary Lymphoma of the Rectum?It is the extranodal lymphoma that arises from the rectum. Rectal lymphoma most of the time is a continuation of B cells Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Patients with rectal lymphoma usually seek treatment because of rectal bleeding or an alteration in bowel habits. Males are affected more than females. This cancer has a five years survival rate of 97%.
What is a Rectum?The rectum is the lowest part of the large intestine which is close to the anus.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, however certain hereditary and genetic mutations along with certain risk factors such as cigarette smoking, older age, obesity, lack of regular physical activity, low fiber intake, and excessive consumption of coffee, alcohol, and tobacco are considered responsible for the development of primary rectal lymphoma.
Signs and SymptomsRectal lymphoma usually presents with signs and symptoms suggestive of primary rectal carcinoma. Sign and symptoms of Lymphoma rectum are as follow:
- Bleeding from the rectum
- Diarrhea alternates with constipation.
- Discomfort in the abdomen
- Nausea and vomiting
- Unintentional weight loss
- Persistent fever
- Constant fatigue
DiagnosisDiagnosis is made based on case taking and examination. For further evaluation following investigations are done.
- Digital rectal examination (DRE)
- CT scan
- Chest x-ray
TreatmentTreatment of rectal lymphomas remains uncertain. While surgical treatment may be indicated for some localized tumors. However, medical management is the primary goal of the treatment. The following treatment is considered for its management.
- Surgical resection (surgical removal of the tumor along with some healthy surrounding tissues).
- EBRT( External beam radiation therapy)