What is Medullary Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum?Medullary carcinoma of the rectum is a relatively new histological type of cancer that arises from hormonal and other secretion-producing gland cells in the body. These tumors are solid with a tendency to malignancy and are associated with increased infiltration (presence) of lymphocytes in the epithelial cells that make up the lining of the rectum. What is a rectum? The rectum is the lowest part of the large intestine which is close to the anus.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known reason; however, certain genetic mutations associated with Lynch syndrome (a hereditary colon cancer disease) are a potential cause of medullary rectal adenocarcinoma.
Signs and SymptomsMedullary carcinomas are mostly, present in older females, but at an earlier stage Signs and symptoms are as follows:
- Blood in stool.
- Constipation\abdominal discomfort
- Bowel alternative conditions i.e., constipation alternating with diarrhea
- Weight loss
- Palpable mass
- Nausea and vomiting
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Ultrasound (USG) of the abdomen
- Endoscopic examination of the anus, rectum, and large intestine. Endoscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to visualize the internal organs of the body directly through the endoscope.
- Computed tomography (CT-pelvis) helps to differentiate squamous cell cancer of the rectum from anal cancer.
- Biopsy of the lesion/tumor and histopathological examination
- Barium Meal