What is Mediastinal Hemangiopericytoma?Mediastinal hemangiopericytoma is a rare type of tumour that originates from vascular cells (particularly pericytes of the vessels) in the mediastinum, lungs, or trachea. It usually arises from vascular cells of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles of the arms and legs, and in very rare cases from the mediastinum, trachea and lungs. It has a tendency to relapse in 50% of cases, and the 5-year survival rate for mediastinal hemangiopericytoma arising from the lungs is 35%.
What is Mediastinum?The mediastinum is a space in the thorax that contains the heart, thymus gland, portions of the esophagus trachea, and other structures.
Disease CausesIt is a rare tumour and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all vascular tumours. There is no well-known cause; however, some hereditary and genetic mutations are thought to be responsible for the excessive division or multiplication of vascular cells, which can lead to hemangiopericytoma of the mediastinum.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Pain in the back
- Pain in the chest
- Chest discomfort
- Difficulty in breathing
- Persistent dry cough
- Persistent fatigue (tiredness)
- In advanced stages, the enlargement of the lymph nodes can also occur
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- Imaging techniques like Chest X-ray, CT-scan, MRI, and PET scan to see the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Tumour biopsy (tumour biopsy to remove a small sample of tissue for histopathological examination)
- Sputum cytology
- USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology