What is Leiomyosarcoma of the Mediastinum?A Mediastinal leiomyosarcoma is rare cancer that arises from mediastinal organs such as the heart, great vessels of the heart, and esophagus. It is rare cancer and accounts for 10% of all mediastinal sarcomas. It is more common in males as compared to females and mostly affects people between the ages of 26-79 years.
What is Mediastinum?The mediastinum is a space in the thorax that contains the heart, thymus gland, portions of the esophagus trachea, and other structures.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause; however, some hereditary and genetic mutations are thought to be responsible for the excessive division or multiplication of normal cells, which can lead to mediastinal leiomyosarcoma.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Pain in the back
- Pain in the chest
- Difficulty in breathing
- Persistent dry cough
- Persistent fatigue (tiredness)
- In advanced stages, the enlargement of the lymph nodes can also occur
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- Imaging techniques like Chest X-ray, CT-scan, MRI, and PET scan to see the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Tumour biopsy (tumour biopsy to remove a small sample of tissue for histopathological examination)
- Sputum cytology
- USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology