What is Mediastinal Hemangioendothelioma?Hemangioendothelioma is a rare type of low-grade malignant (non-cancerous) tumour that arises from the vessels of vital organs, consisting of soft tissues present in the mediastinum, such as the lungs and liver. It is more common in white women. Mediastinal hemangioendothelioma is a low-grade tumour but has the ability to spread to other distant parts of the body.
What is Mediastinum?The mediastinum is a space in the thorax that contains the heart, thymus gland, portions of the esophagus trachea, and other structures.
Disease CausesIt is a rare tumour and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all vascular tumours. There is no well-known cause; however, some hereditary and genetic mutations are thought to be responsible for the excessive division or multiplication of vascular cells, which can lead to hemangioendothelioma of the mediastinum.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Pain in the back
- Pain in the chest
- Chest discomfort
- Difficulty in breathing
- Persistent dry cough
- Persistent fatigue (tiredness)
- In advanced stages, the enlargement of the lymph nodes can also occur
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- Imaging techniques like Chest X-ray, CT-scan, MRI, and PET scan to see the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Tumour biopsy (tumour biopsy to remove a small sample of tissue for histopathological examination)
- Sputum cytology
- USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology