What is dysgerminoma (ovary)?Dysgerminoma is the most common type of germ cell tumour of the ovary. Germ cell tumours are male and female gametes, that is, eggs and sperm that combine to form a zygote, which later divides and grows to form a fetus.
Disease EpidemiologyIt is a very rare tumour, accounting for only 1% of ovarian cancers. It is more common in young women and rarely occurs after menopause. Ovarian dysgerminoma is a malignant tumour, but it responds well to treatment. In most cases, it affects one ovary, but in 10% of cases, it develops in both ovaries.
Signs and symptomsA patient with an ovarian dysgerminoma does not show specific signs and symptoms. Common signs and symptoms are;
- A palpable (felt able) mass in the abdomen or pelvis. The pelvis is a part of the body between the abdomen and thighs
- Pain in the abdomen
- Feeling of fullness or heaviness at the pelvic region
- Frequent urination (repetitive and urgent urge to urinate more than normal)
- Pain during urination
- Feeling of fullness after a few mouths full
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to diagnose dysgerminoma ovary. These are;
- Pregnancy tests and tests for sexually transmitted diseases
- Imaging techniques like ultrasonography (USG) abdomen and pelvis to detect the abdominal mass its size and extent.
- Other diagnostic tests are Beta-hCG, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), inhibin And B, Cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) and nuclear protein test.
- Laparoscopy ( an invasive procedure which allows the doctor to see the internal organs of the abdomen to detect any pathology)