What is Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma?It is a rare and poorly differentiated cancer of the sinuses (nose) and paranasal sinuses (around the nose). Sinuses are empty, air-filled spaces behind the forehead, nose, cheekbones, and between the eyes.
Disease EpidemiologyIt is rare cancer and makes approximately 3% of all head and neck cancers. The frequency of the occurrence of the disease is 0.02 per 100,000 populations.
Disease Etiology (Causes)There is no well-known cause, but cigarette smoking and prior radiation therapy are risk factors for developing undifferentiated sinus carcinoma.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Bulging of the eyes
- Intolerance or sensitivity to light
- Ptosis ( drooping or falling of upper eyelid)
- Loss of sense of smell
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Imaging tests such as X-Ray, CT-scan (computerized tomography), PET-scan (Positron emission tomography) help detect the site, size, and location of the tumour.
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Tumour biopsy and histopathological examination
- Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (A camera device that is inserted into the mouth and throat to visualize the mouth, throat, and larynx to detect any disease).