What is Primary Effusion Lymphoma?Primary effusion lymphoma is a rare malignant (cancerous) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Primary effusion lymphoma develops in the pleural (lung), pericardial (heart), and abdominal (abdominal) cavities of the body. Primary effusion lymphoma causes effusion (fluid accumulation) in these body cavities, which can lead to suffering and death. In rare cases, primary effusion lymphoma develops in the joints and the protective layers of the brain and spinal cord.
What are B and T Cells?There are two types of lymphocytes, B lymphocytes (B-cells) and T lymphocytes (T –cells). These are white blood cells that protect the body against various disease-causing agents such as viruses and bacteria
Disease EpidemiologyIt makes approximately 1% of non-AIDS-related white blood cancers and 3% of AIDS-related lymphomas. It is more common in males as compared to females. It usually affects people with weakened immune systems and the elderly.
Disease Etiology (Causes)There is no known cause, but an association has been found between infection with human herpesvirus-8 (HVV-8) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the development of primary effusion lymphoma.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Difficulty in breathing
- Chest pain
- Distension of the abdomen
- Weight loss
DiagnosisSerological, radiological, and biopsy investigations are useful to diagnose. These are:
- Complete blood count (CBC) with peripheral smear and blood culture
- Blood coagulation profile
- LFT’s(Liver function tests) and RFT’s( Renal function tests)
- Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
- Chest X-ray, CT chest
- Lumbar Puncture