What is Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of Lung?Signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the lung is a rare type of lung cancer that secretes mucin. Mucin is a substance present in mucous and its function is to provide protection to the respiratory tract and intestines. The epithelial cells of the respiratory tract secrete mucus, which consists of mucus that binds to foreign bacteria, fungi, and dust particles and is removed from the respiratory tract (trachea and bronchi). Signet cell adenocarcinoma can also develop in the breast, gallbladder, bladder, and pancreas. It has the tendency to spread to the other distant parts of the body.
Disease CausesCertain hereditary and genetic mutations are considered responsible for the development of Signet ring cell adenocarcinoma lung. Mutation in the CDH1 gene is the main cause of the development of signet ring cell lung adenocarcinoma. Cigarette smoking is also a contributing factor in the development of signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of lung.
Signs and SymptomsSigns and symptoms depend on the extent and spread of the disease to other organs or parts of the body. If the cancer is limited to the lungs, the patient will only experience signs and symptoms of the respiratory system. At the same time, in cases where this cancer spreads to other parts of the body, the patient also experiences B symptoms of cancer.
General respiratory symptoms of the Signet ring cell adenocarcinoma lung
- Persistent cough
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing)
- Chest pain that worsens with coughing, laughing and breathing deeply
- Coughing up blood
- Wheezing without having asthma history
- Clubbing of the fingers and nails (A physical sign characterized by a bulging extension at the ends of one or more fingers or toes).
The following are the general B symptoms (systemic symptoms) of the signet ring cell adenocarcinoma lungs when it spreads to other organs of the body. These are
- Night sweats
- Weight loss
- Bone pains
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- Imaging techniques like Chest X-ray, CT-scan, MRI, and PET scan to see the site, size, and extent of the tumor.
- Tumor biopsy ( lung tumor biopsy to remove a small sample of lung tissue for histopathological examination)
- Sputum cytology
- USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology