What is Renal Cell Carcinoma?Renal cell carcinoma is a common type of kidney cancer and accounts for approximately 90-95% of kidney cancers. It develops from the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal convoluted tubule is the part of the kidney’s nephron (the main building block of the kidney) that reabsorbs various ions such as sodium, sugar, chloride, and water back into the capillaries and blood.
Disease EpidemiologyIt is the 6th most common cancer in the United States, and its incidence in Europe has declined in several decades thanks to a reduction in cigarette smoking. The average age at which the disease is diagnosed is 64, but few cases have been reported in younger people
Disease EtiologyCertain genetic mutations, obesity, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, and exposure to certain environmental chemicals such as trichloroethylene, benzene, benzidine, cadmium, pesticides, and vinyl chloride are risk factors for developing renal cell carcinoma.
Signs and SymptomsIn most cases, there are no symptoms, and cancer or renal tumour is detected on the occasional radiologic examination. In advance cases, the patient may develop the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Pain in the loin
- Passage of blood or blood particles in the urine
- A palpable mass in the loin or abdomen
- Unexplained weight loss
- Night sweats
- High blood pressure
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Imaging techniques like CT-abdomen and pelvis, USG abdomen and pelvis, MRI, CT-chest, and X-ray to assess the site, size, extent, and distant metastasis of the tumour.
- Renal arteriography ( Ultrasonography of the main artery of the kidney)
- CT-scan and MRI brain to detect the distant metastasis of the tumour