What is Peritoneal Pseudomyxoma?Pseudomyxoma peritoneum is a rare type of cancer that originates from the epithelial cells of the appendix as a small growth called a polyp. The cancerous cells from the appendicular polyps then spread to the peritoneal tissues that make the lining of the abdominal cavity. These cancerous cells produce mucus in the appendix sometimes also called appendiceal mucinous tumors. Peritoneal pseudomyxoma does not spread to any other parts of the body via the lymphatic or blood systems. In the meantime, it spread by peritoneal fluid flow from the appendix cancer cells to the entire abdomen. These cells adhere to the peritoneum (abdominal cavity) at a specific location and begin to produce mucus, which gathers inside the abdomen and begins to cause symptoms.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, however certain hereditary and genetic mutations along with the inflammation of the appendix a potential risk factors for the development of peritoneal pseudomyxoma or pseudomyxoma peritonei. Signs and symptoms The patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Pain in the abdomen
- Distension of the abdomen
- Loss of appetite (hunger)
- Unexplained weight loss
- Hernia (bulge of any abdominal organ from the weak muscle of the abdomen or groin)
- Constant fever
- Excessive sweating at night
- Constant fatigue
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- USG of the abdomen and Pelvis
- Endoscopic examination of the anus, rectum, and large intestine. Endoscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to visualize the internal organs of the body directly through the endoscope.
- Computed tomography (CT-abdomen and pelvis), PET-scan.
- Biopsy of the lesion/tumor and histopathological examination
- Blood test for CA-125 (CA-125 is a cancer marker that can indicate the presence of some cancers in the body if its level is greater).
- Barium meal USG to see upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, intestine, and rectum)
- Biopsy of the tumor cells