What is Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Nasal Type (ENKL)?
Extranodal Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (cancer of white blood cells) is a rare type of rapidly growing non-Hodgkin lymphoma that develops outside the lymph nodes, most commonly, in the nose (basically in the midline of the nasal cavity). It usually takes the form of massive, necrotic (cell death through injury or disease) disfiguring (spoiling/defacing) lesion in the nasal cavity (nose). It basically can develop from two different types of lymphocytes (white blood cells); these are natural killer cells and T lymphocytes. Both Natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells kill the virus-infected and cancer cells.
Extranodal NK/T-cell nasal type lymphoma (cancer of white blood cells) is most common in Asian and South American populations as compared to the other regions. The mean age for the development of the disease is ranged from 50-60 years. It is more prevalent (common) in males as compared to females.
Disease Etiology (Causes)
- Epstein –Barr virus (EBV); it has a high association with Extra nodular Natural killer/T cell lymphoma. It is the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis also named as glandular fever, as it produces the signs and symptoms of fever, swollen lymph nodes, rash, and sore throat.
- Genetic mutations.
Sign and Symptoms
Those who have a nasal type of extranodal NK / T-cell lymphoma typically develop a rapidly growing mass within their nose or in the sinuses (air-filled spaces around their nose). You may have symptoms that affect your nose, your eyes, or your face. Initial Sign and symptoms are:
- Nose bleeding
- Nasal stuffiness or blockage( blockage of the passages of the nose due to a mass or membrane)
- Swelling of the face
The patient will present with the following signs and symptoms where the disease becomes advance.
- Nose bleeding
- Upper airway obstruction
- Perforation( hole) of the hard palate
- Disfiguring lesions (mass/lump) of the nasal cavity (inside of your nose which allows the passage of air into respiratory system), Para nasal sinuses (hollow air-filled spaces around the nose beneath the cheekbone), hard palate and eye socket (bone of the eye in which eyeballs are fixed).
The tumor can spread to other areas of the body like head and neck, stomach, intestines, uterus, lungs, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and blood. In such cases, symptoms will be according to the involvement of organs, along with the general symptoms of fever, lethargy, weight loss, and night sweats.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnostic tests are:
- Tumor biopsy
- CT-scan, PET scan MRI, USG and X-ray
- EBV test to detect viral DNA and antibodies
Treatment options include:
- Targeted tumor cell therapy.
What Support can we give for Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma Nasal Type?
Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma Nasal Type is a rare cancer, meaning it is not as well known as other forms of cancer. Without a Ribbon is an Australian organisation that provides support for individuals who suffer from rare cancers. We provide a designated platform for Warriors to obtain information specific to their Rare Cancer. We also provide annual opportunities for our Warriors to meet and learn from each other. If you suffer from rare cancer such as Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma Nasal Type, we can help and support you through your journey thanks to the generous donations we receive. Click the link below to sign up and become a Warrior today!
You can help us with your donation:
Without a Ribbon is a charity that works hard to aid those who suffer from rare cancers. You can help our cause in a variety of ways: Donations – Without a Ribbon is grateful for every donation received. Giving to Without a Ribbon helps us to provide ongoing support, organise the annual gathering and subsidise the costs of our Warriors attending these conferences. Sponsorship – If you wish to sponsor our charity, please contact us using this form. Volunteering – We are always looking for volunteers to help with different aspects of running our charity. If you are looking for volunteer work, please feel free to contact us.