What is an Endodermal Sinus Tumour of the ovary?Endodermal Sinus Tumour of the Ovary is a tumour of the ovarian germ cells, which accounts for approximately 20-25% of all malignant (cancerous) ovarian germ cell tumours. It can develop in women between the ages of 17 and 75. The peak incidence occurs in middle age. It is a high-grade tumour that grows rapidly and can spread to other parts of the body.
What is Germ cell ovarian cancer?Germ cell ovarian cancer is cancer in which benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) growths are developed in the germ cells (eggs) of the female’s ovaries. Germ cell ovarian cancer mostly develops in teenage girls and younger women.
What are ovaries?Ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. There are two ovaries in the female reproductive system which are attached by the fallopian tubes to the uterus. In the ovaries, eggs are formed and they secrete female hormones.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause; However, Certain hereditary and genetic mutations (faulty alterations in the genes) are believed to be responsible for the development of the endodermal sinus tumour of the ovary.
Signs and symptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Swelling or lump in the abdomen or pelvic region
- Rapidly enlarging mass or tumour
- Pain, pressure or feeling of fullness in the abdomen(belly)
- Inter-menstrual (Irregular vaginal bleeding between two menstrual cycles) or post-menopausal vaginal bleeding.
DiagnosisFollowing diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make the diagnosis. These are
- Complete blood count ( CBC)
- Serum tumour markers
- Imaging techniques like ultrasonography (USG), CT-scan, MRI, and X-Ray to detect the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Pelvic examination through per-speculum examination of the vagina, cervix, and ovaries. A speculum is a gynecological instrument used to visualize the vaginal wall, cervix, uterus, and ovaries to detect any abnormality.