What is Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Colon?Signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the colon is a rare type of cancer of the large intestine and accounts for approximately 0.5 to 2.6% of adenocarcinoma colon. It is called signet ring cell adenocarcinoma due to the presence of signet ring cells as the dominant type of cancer cells and the formation of immature glands of the colon. It shows a poor prognosis (likely course of the disease). It usually affects adolescents and younger adults. Signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon has a higher tendency to involve the lymph nodes. The five-year survival rate of signet cell carcinoma of the colon ranges from 9-30%.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, however, certain hereditary and genetic mutations such as mutations in the CDH1 gene are considered responsible for the development of signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon.
Signs and SymptomsIt is usually diagnosed in advanced stages, so the prognosis is poor (Likely course of the disease).
- Loose motion with blood in stool
- Pain in the abdomen
- Mass or tumour in the abdomen
- Change in bowel habits, constipation, diarrhea, or more frequent urge to pass stool.
- Dark colour stool due to the presence of blood in the stool
- Feeling as if the bowels are not empty after defecation
- Bleeding from the anus
- Unexplained weight loss
- Constant Fever
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Endoscopic examination of the anus, rectum, and large intestine. Endoscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to visualize the internal organs of the body directly through the endoscope.
- Computed tomography (CT-pelvis)
- Chest X-Ray or CT-Chest
- Biopsy of the lesion/tumour and histopathological examination
- Complete blood count
- LFTs (Liver Function test)
- Test for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)