What is Pleomorphic Giant Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder?A pleomorphic giant cell tumour of the urinary bladder is a type of cancer that originates from the epithelium of the urinary bladder. It is more common in males as compared to females. It usually develops in older age.
What is the Urinary bladder and what are its functions?The bladder is a sac-like structure in the human body, made up of muscles located in the pelvic region, and its function is to store urine. Urine produced by the kidneys enters the bladder through two tubular structures that originate in each kidney and end in the bladder. The bladder stores urine and helps control urination.
Disease Etiology (Causes)There is no well-known cause, however, certain genetic mutations (faulty alterations in certain genes) are considered responsible for the development of the disease.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- (Hematuria) Presence of blood in urine
- Pain while passing urine
- Pain in the abdomen
- Usually diagnosed in advanced stages
- Constant fever
- Unexplained loss of weight
- Constant feeling of tiredness
- Excessive sweating at night
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Urine complete examination (UCE) to detect any urinary tract infection and blood in the urine
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Renal Function Test (RFT’s) to check the serum urea and creatinine
- Liver function tests (LFT’s)
- Imaging techniques like CT-abdomen and pelvis, USG abdomen and pelvis, MRI, CT-chest, and X-ray to assess the site, size, extent, and distant metastasis of the tumour.
- Cystoscopy; is similar to an ultrasound examination of the urinary bladder, which allows direct visualization of the ureter with cystoscopy.
- Urinary cytology; is a microscopic examination of the cells present in urine and their characteristics.
- Tumour biopsy and histopathological examination