What is Pleomorphic Carcinoma of Lung?Pleomorphic lung carcinoma is a rare form of high-grade lung cancer. High-grade cancer is a cancer that grows rapidly and spreads to other parts of the body from where it originated. It account for approximately 0.1% to 0.4% of all lung cancers. The mean age for the diagnosis of disease in most cases was 60-65 years. It is more common in males as compared to females. It shows poor prognosis (likely course of the disease). The most common sites for the spread of the tumour from its site of origin are brain, adrenal glands, kidneys, small intestine, large intestine and rectum.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, but several hereditary and genetic mutations are thought to be responsible for the development of pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung. An association has also been observed between cigarette smoking and the development of pleomorphic carcinoma of lung. It
Signs and SymptomsSigns and symptoms depend on the extent and spread of the disease to other organs or parts of the body. If the cancer is limited to the lungs, the patient will only experience signs and symptoms of the respiratory system. At the same time, in cases where this cancer spreads to other parts of the body, the patient also experiences B symptoms of cancer. General respiratory symptoms of pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung
- Persistent cough
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing)
- Chest pain that worsens with coughing, laughing and breathing deeply
- Coughing up blood
- Wheezing without having an asthma history
- Clubbing of the fingers and nails (A physical sign characterized by a bulging extension at the ends of one or more fingers or toes).
- Night sweats
- Weight loss
- Bone pains
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- Imaging techniques like Chest X-ray, CT-scan, MRI, and PET scan to see the site, size, and extent of the tumor.
- Tumour biopsy (lung tumour biopsy to remove a small sample of lung tissue for histopathological examination)
- Sputum cytology
- USG-guided fine needle aspiration cytology