What is a Giant Cell Tumour of the Bone?A giant cell tumour of the bone is a rare type of benign tumour that usually affects the bones near the joints. The lower end of the femur (thigh bone) and the upper end of the tibia (shin bone) are the most commonly affected. The knee and elbow joints are most commonly affected, but flat bones such as the pelvis and sternum (breastbone) can also be affected. The other common sites of the development of giant cell tumours are the wrist joint, shoulder joint, hip, and Lower back.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause; however, certain hereditary and genetic mutations are thought to be responsible for the development of giant cell bone tumours.
Disease EpidemiologyIt is a rare type of cancer that most commonly affects people in their 20s and 40s. It is very rare in the elderly and children and is slightly more common in women than in men.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Pain at the site of the tumour
- Pain in the affected bone or joint that increased with movement and decreased at rest
- Mass or swelling at the affected site
Diagnosis and TreatmentFollowing diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are:
- Radiological and imaging techniques like CT-scan, PET-scan, MRI, and X-ray.
- FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology)
- Tumour Biopsy