What is the Complete Hydatidiform Mole?
Molar pregnancy is another name of a complete hydatidiform mole. This is an abnormal type of pregnancy in which a non-viable fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus and turns into an abnormal growth or tumour instead of the fetus.
A complete hydatidiform mole is a gestational trophoblastic disease, a term used to describe a group of tumours associated with pregnancy. So, these are rare tumours and develop from trophoblasts. Trophoblasts are tissues that grow to form the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops inside the uterus during pregnancy to supply the fetus (baby) with oxygen and nutrients, as well as to remove waste from the blood of the fetus.
It is a rare tumour. Therefore, the reported frequency of the occurrence of the tumour is ranged from 23 to 1299 cases per 100,000 pregnancies. It is more common among populations in Asia and Africa compared to populations in America and Europe, probably due to nutrient deficiency of carotene in under developing countries. Among the total incidence of Hydatidiform moles, only 10% are cancerous.
A complete hydatidiform mole is devoid of embryonic tissue and maternal DNA. A complete hydatidiform mole also has an abnormal placenta and no fetus. So, it consists only of excessive growth of placental tissue. Some main risk factors are maternal age under 20 or above 35 years and previous history of molar pregnancy.
Signs and Symptoms
- Vaginal bleeding of dark brown or bright red colour in first 3 months of the pregnancy.
- Severe Nausea and vomiting
- Pain or pressure feeling in the pelvic (hip) region
- Sometimes mole pieces also pass through the vagina in the form of grapes similar to cysts.
- Rapid growth of the uterus ( large for dates pregnancy)
- Pre-eclampsia; this is a condition in which a pregnant woman suffers from high blood pressure, swelling of the arms and legs and from the passage of protein in the urine.
- Symptoms of Anaemia like shortness of breath, fatigue and pallor.
- There is also a likelihood of molar pregnancy in women with hyperthyroidism with signs and symptoms of diarrhoea, increased body temperature, heart palpitations, sweating and heat intolerance.
- Also Elevated HCG ( Human chorionic gonadotropin)
Diagnosis and Treatment
These are the diagnostic tests and procedures that we can use to make a diagnosis.
- Complete blood count ( CBC)
- Serum beta-HCG
- Serum Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
- Obstetric USG
However, treatment options are suction curettage, surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) and chemotherapy with Methotrexate.
What Support can we Give for Complete Hydatidiform Mole (Uterus)?
Complete Hydatidiform Mole (Uterus) is rare cancer, meaning it is not as well known as other forms of cancer. Without a Ribbon is an Australian organisation that provides support for individuals who suffer from rare cancers. We offer a designated platform for Warriors to obtain information specific to their Rare Cancer. We also provide annual opportunities for our Warriors to meet and learn from each other. If you suffer from rare cancer such as Complete Hydatidiform Mole (Uterus), we can help and support you through your journey thanks to the generous donations we receive. Click the link below to sign up and become a Warrior today!
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