What is a Wilms Tumour?Wilms Tumour is a type of childhood kidney cancer. Among kidney cancers, it is the most prevalent type of kidney cancer in children. Wilms Tumor also named as neuroblastoma. The average age for developing the disease is about 3.5 years. Wilms tumour mainly develops in one kidney but can develop in both kidneys at the same time. Nearly 80-90% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumour survive with modern combination therapy. After the initial diagnosis, the overall survival rate is 80%, even in patients with stage IV disease.
Disease Etiology (Cause)Mutations (changes) in those genes that are responsible for the normal development of the genital and urinary tract are responsible for the development of Wilms tumour.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from following signs and symptoms.
- A palpable(touchable) abdominal mass
- Pain in the abdomen
- Hematuria ( blood in urine)
- Symptoms of urinary tract infection (such as symptoms of frequent urge to urinate, burning while urination, pain while passing urine)
- Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, constipation, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, and high blood pressure are symptoms where the disease becomes progressive.
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Renal Function Test (RFT’s)
- Liver function test (LFT’s)
- Complete urine examination
- Using other imaging techniques such as abdominal USG(ultrasonography), X-rays, computed tomography, MRI, and PET to determine the characteristics of tumours, their location, size, and the extent to the regional and distant parts of the body.
- Nephrectomy: surgical removal of the affected kidney and surgical examination of a healthy kidney, a subsequent biopsy of the tumour or tissue of the affected kidney, directed for diagnosis and histopathological examination.