What is Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma?Well-differentiated liposarcoma is the most common type of slowly growing, painless fat cell tumour. It mainly develops in the abdomen and limbs and groins (the area between the abdomen and thighs) and less commonly in the head and neck region.
Disease Etiology (Causes)The main cause is an extensive chromosomal abnormality that leads to overexpression of genes that promote cell growth.
Disease EpidemiologyThe incidence of well-differentiated liposarcoma is about 1/200000 per year and accounts for 30-50% of all liposarcomas. It is predominantly more common in males. The most common places of its appearance are the abdomen, limbs, chest, and genitals of men. The average age of onset of the disease is 50-60 years.
Signs and SymptomsSigns and symptoms vary according to the site and size of the tumour. General signs and symptoms are;
- In most cases, well-differentiated liposarcoma shows no signs and symptoms
- Slowly growing mobile or firm fat cell mass or growth
- In most cases, it is painless
- Pain in the abdomen
- Unexplained or unintended weight loss
- Patients may also suffer from the symptoms of urinary obstruction like decreased urine output or absence of urine where the tumour is enlarged and extend to the kidneys and ureter.
DiagnosisFollowing diagnostic tests and techniques are used to make a diagnosis these are;
- Chest-X-Ray and CT-chest (computed tomography) may be used as a screening for pulmonary metastasis.
- USG (Ultrasonography abdomen and pelvis) to detect peritoneal and abdominal metastasis of the tumour.
- Tumour biopsy
- Fine needle aspiration and cytology
- Cytogenetic study
- Complete wide marginal surgical resection (surgical removal of the tumour along with some border tissues to prevent tumour recurrence and spread) of the tumour is the main treatment.
- In cases of large malignant well-differentiated liposarcoma and distant metastases, chemotherapy with surgical removal of the tumour is indicated.