What is Villoglandular Papillary Adenocarcinoma?Villoglandular Papillary Adenocarcinoma is a subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma, and the cervix is the lower part or opening of the uterus. In general, adenocarcinoma refers to cancers of the glands that are present in epithelial tissues. Villloglandular papillary adenocarcinoma usually develops in women of the reproductive age group.
Disease EpidemiologyIt is a very rare tumour with a good prognosis compared to other endocervical adenocarcinomas of the cervix. The true incidence is unknown and usually occurs in women of the reproductive age group with an average age of 40 years or less.
Disease Etiology (Causes)An exact known cause does not exist; however, an association has been found between oral contraceptive use and the development of villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma.
Signs and SymptomsThe most common signs and symptoms are
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding
- Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse
- Pain during intercourse
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- By manual or per speculum examination to see the vagina, cervix, and uterus to rule out the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding.
- Hysteroscopy: It is a procedure used to diagnose and treat the causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Hysteroscopy is performed using a hysteroscopy, a thin, lighted tube that is inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and the inner side of the uterus.
- Using other imaging techniques such as X-rays, computed tomography, MRI, and PET to determine the characteristics of tumours, their location, size, and the extent to the regional and distant parts of the body.
- Tumour Biopsy
- In the case where the tumour is limited to its site of origin i.e. to cervix cone biopsy is the recommended treatment option.
- Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) with or without lymphadenectomy (surgical removal of one or more lymph nodes).