What is Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra?Urethral adenocarcinoma is a rare type of cancer that originates from the cells that make up the mucus-secreting glands of the urethra. It is a very rare cancer and accounts for less than 1% of all types of cancer. The survival rate ranges from 83%-36%.
What is Urethra?The urethra is a tubular structure that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus. The urinary tract is the opening of the urethra that opens outside the body. Urine exits the body through the urethra and urinary meatus.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, but risk factors such as urethral strictures, chronic urethral inflammation such as repeated insertion of a urine catheter (urine tube and bag), exposure to certain types of radiation or radiation therapy, chronic urethral inflammation from sexually transmitted infections, are responsible for the development of adenocarcinoma of the urethra.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- (Hematuria) Presence of blood in the urine
- Pain while urination
- Pain in the abdomen
- Usually diagnosed in advanced stages
- Pain while passing urine
- Constant fever
- Unexplained loss of weight
- Constant feeling of tiredness
- Excessive sweating at night
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Urine complete examination (UCE) to detect any urinary tract infection and blood in the urine
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Renal Function Tests (RFTs) to check the serum urea and creatinine
- Liver function tests (LFTs)
- Imaging techniques like CT-abdomen and pelvis, USG abdomen and pelvis, MRI, CT-chest, and X-ray to assess the site, size, extent, and distant metastasis of the tumour.
- Cystoscopy; is similar to an ultrasound examination of the urinary bladder, which allows direct visualization of the ureter and urethra with cystoscopy.
- Urinary cytology; is a microscopic examination of the cells present in urine and their characteristics.
- Tumour biopsy and histopathological examination