What is Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Ureter)?Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Ureter) is a rare cancer that arises from the transitional cells of the ureter. The ureter is lined with transitional cells. The ureter is a long, hollow tube that extends from each kidney and ends in the bladder. The human body has two ureters that collect urine from each kidney and drain into the bladder. It is also known as the Urothelial tumour of the ureter.
Disease EpidemiologyTransitional cell carcinoma (ureter) makes only 2-3% of kidney and ureter tumours. The annual incidence of transitional cell carcinoma (ureter) is approximately 2 per 100,000 populations in Europe. The mean age at the diagnosis of the disease is 65 years. It is slightly more common in males as compared to females.
Disease EtiologyThere is no well-known cause, however, certain hereditary genetic mutations and risk factors such as cigarette smoking, excessive consumption of coffee or tea usually more than 7 cups per day, excessive and unnecessary consumption of pain relievers, occupational exposure to chemicals used in plastic, and tar industries and interstitial nephritis are considered responsible for transitional cell carcinoma (ureter).
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may present with the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Pain in the loin
- Passage of blood or blood particles in the urine
- A palpable mass in the loin or abdomen
- Pain while passing urine
- Unexplained weight loss
- Night sweats
- High blood pressure
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Urine complete examination (UCE) to detect any urinary tract infection and blood in the urine
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Renal Function Test (RFT’s) to check the serum urea and creatinine
- Liver function tests (LFT’s)
- Imaging techniques like CT-abdomen and pelvis, USG abdomen and pelvis, MRI, CT-chest, and X-ray to assess the site, size, extent, and distant metastasis of the tumour.
- Cystoscopy; it is similar to an ultrasound examination of the ureter, which allows direct visualization of the ureter with cystoscopy.
- Urinary cytology; is a microscopic examination of the cells present in urine and their characteristics.