What is Prolymphocytic Leukemia?Prolymphocytic leukemia is a type of white blood cell cancer that occurs as a result of uncontrolled division or multiplication of immature white blood cells. It can originate from premature T-lymphocytes or B-lymphocytes. Premature T and B lymphocytes go through different stages of development and become mature cells. The disease can affect the liver, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin.
What are B-lymphocytes?B-lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is part of the body’s immune system and helps fight off harmful bacteria, viruses, algae, and fungi.
What are T lymphocytes?T cells or T-lymphocytes are the type of white blood cells that help to fight various pathogens (Disease-causing microorganisms or agents).
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, however, certain hereditary and genetic mutations (faulty alterations in the genes) are considered responsible for the development of prolymphocytic leukemia.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Increase calcium level in the blood
- Swelling and enlargement of the lymph nodes of the neck, armpits, and groin
- Constant feeling of tiredness
- Rashes or lesions on the skin
- Unexplained weight loss
- Constant Fever
- Excessive sweating at night
- Enlargement of the lymph nodes
- Enlargement of the spleen
- Pain in the bones
- Pain in the joints
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Urine complete examination (UCE) to detect any urinary tract infection and blood in the urine
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Liver function tests (LFT’s)
- Imaging techniques like CT scan, USG, MRI, CT-chest, and X-ray to assess the site, size, extent, and distant metastasis of the tumour.
- Tumour biopsy and histopathological examination
- Bone marrow biopsy