What is Primary Mediastinal Leiomyoma?Primary mediastinal leiomyomas are a rare type of tumour originating from the smooth muscles of the esophagus and the smooth muscles of great vessels of the mediastinum, that is, the large vessels that come from the heart and lungs, such as the inferior vena cava, superior vena cava, and pulmonary artery. It mainly affects middle-aged women. These tumours rarely show signs and symptoms, symptoms mainly develop due to the compressive effect of the tumour on the underlying vital organs and vessels.
What is Mediastinum?The mediastinum is a space in the thorax that contains the heart, thymus gland, portions of the esophagus trachea, and other structures.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause; however, some hereditary and genetic mutations are thought to be responsible for the excessive division or multiplication of normal cells, which can lead to the development of mediastinal leiomyoma.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Pain in the back
- Pain in the chest
- Difficulty in breathing
- Persistent dry cough
- Persistent fatigue (tiredness)
- In advanced stages, the enlargement of the lymph nodes can also occur
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- Imaging techniques like Chest X-ray, CT-scan, MRI, and PET scan to see the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Tumour biopsy (tumour biopsy to remove a small sample of tissue for histopathological examination)
- Sputum cytology
- USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology