What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis?Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is a type of cancer that arises from flat, thin cells that are found in the tissues that form the surface of the skin, called squamous cells. These squamous cells are also found in the superficial tissues of the skin of the penis. Although squamous cell carcinoma of the penis can develop anywhere on the penis, it mostly occurs on the foreskin of the penis in uncircumcised men. Penile squamous cell carcinoma tends to grow slowly, so it shows a good prognosis (chances of recovery) if it is diagnosed at earlier stages. It mostly develops in males between the ages of 50-70 years.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, however along with certain hereditary and genetic mutations past infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV infection, poor genital hygiene; cigarette smoking, chronic bronchitis, and previous injury to the penis are the risk factor for the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- The affected area of the skin of the penis becomes thick
- Changes in the skin color
- Lump in the penis
- Red color rash under the foreskin of the penis
- Ulcer and redness on the affected area of the penis
- Itching and bleeding from the affected ulcerated area of the penis
- Foul-smelling discharge from the penis
- Pain in the affected area
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic techniques and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis.
- Physical examination of the external genitalia and nearby lymph nodes (The doctor will see any possible signs of penile cancer on physical examination such as redness of the skin, ulcer on the penis, bleeding from an ulcer, and any other lump or mass in the genital region).
- Biopsy of the discolored or changed area of skin or lump present on the penis or genital area
- FNAC ( Fine needle aspiration cytology)
- Other diagnostic techniques to detect the site, size, and extent of the tumor are USG pelvis, X-ray, CT- Scan, MRI, and PET scan.