What is lymphoepithelioma like carcinoma of the urinary bladder?Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare subtype of transitional cell carcinoma or urothelial carcinoma. It is characterized by the uncontrolled multiplication of certain types of white blood cells in the area of the tumour, which can be observed during histopathological examination under a microscope, taking the tumour tissue. It usually develops in the bladder, but it can also develop in the urethra and urinary tract. The urethra is a tube that connects the bladder to the outer opening of the urethra to drain urine from the body.
Disease EpidemiologyIt is rare cancer, accounting for 0.4% to 1.3% of all urinary bladder cancers. In males, it is slightly common than in females. It usually affects older people over 65 years of age.
Disease Etiology (Causes)There is no well-known cause, however, certain genetic mutations (faulty alterations in certain genes) are considered responsible for the development of the disease.
Signs and symptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- (Hematuria) Presence of blood in urine without any pain
- Usually diagnosed in advanced stages
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Urine complete examination (UCE) to detect any urinary tract infection and blood in the urine
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Renal Function Test (RFT’s) to check the serum urea and creatinine
- Liver function tests (LFT’s)
- Imaging techniques like CT abdomen and pelvis, USG abdomen and pelvis, MRI, CT-chest, and X-ray to assess the site, size, extent, and distant metastasis of the tumor.
- Cystoscopy; is similar to an ultrasound examination of the urinary bladder, which allows direct visualization of the ureter with cystoscopy.
- Urinary cytology; is a microscopic examination of the cells present in urine and their characteristics.
- Tumour biopsy and histopathological examination