What is Hepatosplenic T cell Lymphoma?Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma is a rare cancer that results from the excessive and uncontrolled production of white blood cells, especially cytotoxic T cells that invade the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, T cells, and B cells are types of white blood cells. Lymphocytes (white blood cells) help to fight infection and microorganisms that enter the body. Hepatosplenic T cells lymphoma is usually incurable.
Disease Etiology (Causes)There is no definite well-known cause. But certain genetic mutations and risk factors, such as a history of immunosuppressants (drugs that suppress allergies and medications given after organ transplants), HIV, and inflammatory bowel disease are factors that contribute to the development of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma.
Disease EpidemiologyHepatosplenic T cell lymphoma is rare cancer that accounts for less than 5% of all lymphoma cases. It usually develops in the younger and adolescent population. Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma is slightly predominant in males as compared to females.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Enlargement of the spleen and liver
- Pain in the abdomen
- Enlargement of lymph nodes
- Night sweats
- Bone pains
DiagnosisSerological, radiological, and biopsy investigations are useful to diagnose. These are:
- Complete blood count (CBC) with peripheral smear and blood culture
- Blood coagulation profile
- LFT’s(Liver function tests) and RFT’s( Renal function tests)
- Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and USG (Ultrasonography) of abdomen