What is a Giant Cell tumour?A giant cell tumour is a rare non-cancerous aggressive (rapidly developing and spreading) tumour typically develops in the long bones near the joints at the end of the bones, like long bones of the legs and forearm. In 50% of cases, it develops around the knee joint. In 10% of cases, it develops in the vertebrae of the lower part of the spinal cord and the bones of fingers. It also can develop in the flat bones of the body like the sternum and pelvic bone.
What is a Giant Cell-like tumour of the Urinary Bladder?Usually, a giant cell tumour is a tumour of the long bones of the body, but in rare cases, it can develop from cartilage bones, soft tissues, and various organs of the body. For example, it can develop from the pancreas, thyroid gland, urinary bladder, ureters, larynx (voice box), ovary, and salivary glands. Giant cell bladder tumour is a very rare tumour and originates from epithelial cells of the bladder.
Disease Etiology (Causes)There is no well-known cause, however, certain genetic mutations (faulty alterations in certain genes) are considered responsible for the development of the disease.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- (Hematuria) Presence of blood in urine without any pain
- Usually diagnosed in advanced stages
- Pain while passing urine
- Constant fever
- Unexplained loss of weight
- Constant feeling of tiredness
- Excessive sweating at night
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Urine complete examination (UCE) to detect any urinary tract infection and blood in the urine
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Renal Function Test (RFT’s) to check the serum urea and creatinine
- Liver function tests (LFT’s)
- Imaging techniques like CT-abdomen and pelvis, USG abdomen and pelvis, MRI, CT-chest, and X-ray to assess the site, size, extent, and distant metastasis of the tumour.
- Cystoscopy; is similar to an ultrasound examination of the urinary bladder, which allows direct visualization of the ureter with cystoscopy.
- Urinary cytology; is a microscopic examination of the cells present in urine and their characteristics.
- TumoTumourr biopsy and histopathological examination