What is a Germ cell Tumour of the Testis?Germ cell tumour of the testis are tumours that develop from the sperm-producing cells of the testicle. There are two main types of germ cell tumours – seminoma and non-seminoma. The testicles are the male sex glands in the human body, there are a pair of testes in the human body. The function of the testis is to produce sperm and male hormones for reproduction.
Disease EpidemiologyGerm cell tumours of the testis make approximately 90% of all testicular cancers. The mean age for the development of germ cell tumours of the testis in men is 15-49 years.
Disease Etiology (Causes)Certain genetic mutations, a family history of germ cell tumours, undescended testes (in the case of an undescended testicle, the testicle does not move into the testicular sac, which is behind the penis called the scrotum) and HIV infection are risk factors that can cause germ cell testicular tumour of the testes.
Signs and Symptoms
- Enlargement in size of the testes
- Pain in tests and scrotum
- Pain in the abdomen in case of germ cell tumour of undescended testes
- Breast enlargement in males
- Fever, night sweats, bone pains, and lethargy in cases where the cancer is spread to the other parts of the body
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis.
- Imaging techniques such as USG, CT-Scan, and MRI of pelvis and abdomen to estimate the size, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Serum alpha-fetoprotein test
- Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the affected testicle