What is Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Uterus?Clear cell carcinoma of the uterus is a rare and aggressive type of endometrial cancer characterised by the presence of clear cells and hobnail cells. It represents only a small fraction of all endometrial cancers. However, it tends to be more aggressive and has a poorer prognosis than more common types of endometrial cancer.
SymptomsSymptoms of clear cell carcinoma of the uterus may include:
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
- Pain during intercourse
- Pelvic pain
- A palpable mass or lump in the pelvic area
- Unexplained weight loss
Disease Aetiology (Causes)The exact cause of clear cell carcinoma of the uterus is unknown, but it may be associated with a history of pelvic radiation therapy and certain genetic mutations. Other potential risk factors for endometrial cancer, in general, include obesity, estrogen therapy without progesterone, late menopause, and never having been pregnant.
DiagnosisThe diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma often involves:
- Detailed medical history and physical examination
- Endometrial biopsy or dilation and curettage (D&C) to obtain tissue for examination under a microscope
- Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to ascertain the size, location, and extent of the tumour
TreatmentThe treatment for clear cell carcinoma of the uterus typically involves:
- Surgery: The primary treatment, involves the surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), along with the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
- Radiation Therapy: This can be used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence.
- Chemotherapy: This is often used in combination with surgery, particularly in more advanced cases or if the cancer recurs.