What is Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary?Clear Cell Carcinoma of the ovary is a type of ovarian cancer that usually develops in younger women. It usually develops in women with endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue lining the walls of the uterus begins to grow in other parts of the body, most commonly the ovaries and fallopian tubes. The overall five-year survival rate is 66%. It tends to metastasize to the lymph nodes of the body. Metastasis is the spread of a tumour from its site of origin to other parts of the body.
What are ovaries?The ovaries are an important part of the human reproductive system. The ovaries are small glands located on either side of the uterus through a tubular structure called the fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones in females. These eggs are used for producing offspring.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause; however, certain hereditary and genetic mutations are believed to be responsible for the development of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Having no children (nulliparity), the onset of the first menstruation at a very young age, late menopause, infertility, and a family history of ovarian cancer in the first-degree relative are all risk factors that can make a person vulnerable to developing cystadenocarcinoma. It has also been observed that it often develops in women with endometriosis.
Disease EpidemiologyIn North America, it accounts for approximately 10-12% of all types of cancers of the ovary. It is more common in Asian people as compared to white and blacks.
Signs and symptomsA person with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary may suffer from the following signs and symptoms.
- Pain or discomfort in the right lower part of the abdomen
- Decrease in the appetite
- Irregular menstruations
- Swelling or lump in the abdomen or pelvic region
- Pain, pressure, or feeling of fullness in the abdomen(belly)
DiagnosisFollowing diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make the diagnosis. These are
- Complete blood count ( CBC)
- Serum tumour markers
- Imaging techniques like ultrasonography (USG), CT-scan, MRI, and X-Ray to detect the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Pelvic examination through per-speculum examination of the vagina, cervix, and ovaries. A speculum is a gynecological instrument used to visualize the vaginal wall, cervix, uterus, and ovaries to detect any abnormality.