What is Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix?Clear cell cervical cancer is a rare type of cancer and accounts for approximately 4% of all cervical cancers. It usually develops in older women after menopause. Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation or the end of the menstrual cycle at the age of 51. The median age for the development of clear cell carcinoma of the cervix is 53 years. It is more common in females of Asian origin.
What is Cervix?The cervix is the lower part of the uterus; it is cylinder-shaped and connects the uterus with the vagina in the female body.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, but a strong association has been found between the development of clear cell cervical cancer and intrauterine exposure to synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen and diethylstilbestrol (DES), that is, it can develop in people whose mothers took diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy.
Signs and SymptomsIn the early stages, the patient usually does not have any signs or symptoms. The common signs and symptoms are:
- Bleeding from the vagina after sexual intercourse
- Abnormal bleeding from the vagina between the two menstrual cycles
- Abnormal watery discharge from the vagina with the smell
- Pain in the pelvic region or lower part of the abdomen during the sexual intercourse
- Pain while passing urine
- Unexplained weight loss
- Excessive sweating at night
DiagnosisFollowing diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make the diagnosis. These are
- Complete blood count ( CBC)
- Serum tumour markers
- Imaging techniques like ultrasonography (USG), CT-scan, MRI, and X-Ray to detect the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Pelvic examination through per-speculum examination of the vagina, cervix, and ovaries. A speculum is a gynecological instrument used to visualize the vaginal wall, cervix, uterus, and ovaries to detect any abnormality.