What is Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lung?Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that are found in surface tissues of the skin, line the cavities and tubular structures of the body, and these cells line the body’s airways and digestive tract. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of lung is a high-grade tumour with poor prognosis (likely course of the disease). The median survival after diagnosis is 29 to 49 months. High-grade tumours are tumours that grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body. It can also develop in the head, neck, esophagus and anal canal. I can spread to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body from lungs. The overall prevalence is 6.3%.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, but several hereditary and genetic mutations are thought to be responsible for the development of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma lung. An association has also been observed between cigarette smoking and the development of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma lung. It is more common in males as compared to females.
Signs and SymptomsSigns and symptoms depend on the extent and spread of the disease to other organs or parts of the body. If the cancer is limited to the lungs, the patient will only experience signs and symptoms of the respiratory system. At the same time, in cases where this cancer spreads to other parts of the body, the patient also experiences B symptoms of cancer.
General respiratory symptoms of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the lung
- Persistent cough
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing)
- Chest pain that worsens with coughing, laughing and breathing deeply
- Coughing up blood
- Wheezing without having asthma history
- Clubbing of the fingers and nails (A physical sign characterized by a bulging extension at the ends of one or more fingers or toes).
The following are the general B symptoms (systemic symptoms) of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma lungs when it spreads to other organs of the body. These are
- Night sweats
- Weight loss
- Bone pains
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are;
- Imaging techniques like Chest X-ray, CT-scan, MRI, and PET scan to see the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Tumour biopsy ( lung tumour biopsy to remove a small sample of lung tissue for histopathological examination)
- Sputum cytology
- USG-guided fine needle aspiration cytology