What is B-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia?B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is cancer (rapid, uncontrolled division) of immature B- and T-lymphocytes (white blood cells) in the blood, bone marrow, and spleen. It is an aggressive tumor and has a poor prognosis. Mature B and T lymphocytes are white blood cells that help to fight various diseases caused by microorganisms. With prolymphocytic leukemia of B cells, due to a deficiency of mature B and T lymphocytes, the immune system has a low ability to fight various infections.
Disease EpidemiologyB-cell lymphocytic leukemia accounts for approximately less than 1% of all leukocyte cancers. The average age at the development of the disease is 65-70 years. It is more prevalent in men than in women. It is more common in white people.
Disease EtiologyThere is no well-known cause, but certain genetic mutations and exposure to radiation and harmful chemicals are responsible for the development of B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.
Signs and SymptomsThe patient may suffer from the following signs and symptoms. These are
- Night sweats
- Weight loss
- Enlargement of the spleen than normal size
- Higher white blood cell count on Complete blood count examination (CBC)
- Lower red blood cell count on complete blood count examination (CBC)
- Chronic and recurrent infections
- The lower number of a platelet on complete blood count examination (CBC)
- Bleeding and bruising due to lower platelet count
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic techniques and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis these are
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Diagnostic imaging techniques such as USG, CT-scan, MRI, and PET scan can be used to detect the site, size, and extent of the tumor.
- Bone marrow biopsy