What is Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the Cervix?This is a rare type of cancer that occurs due to the mixed squamous and glandular cells of the cervix. It accounts for approximately 10% of all adenosquamous carcinomas of the cervix. The chances of developing adenocarcinoma increase during pregnancy. It is a high-grade tumour. High-grade tumours are tumours that grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
Disease causesCurrent or previous infection with Human Papillomavirus which is transmitted through sexual intercourse with the person infected with Human papillomavirus is the main cause behind the adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Unprotected sex, multiple sexual partners, having current or previous infection with sexually transmitted diseases and cigarette smoking are the risk factors for the development of adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix.
Signs and SymptomsIn the early stages of cervical adenocarcinoma, the patient usually does not have any signs or symptoms. The common signs and symptoms are:
- Bleeding from the vagina after sexual intercourse
- Abnormal bleeding from the vagina between the two menstrual cycles
- Abnormal watery discharge from the vagina with the smell
- Pain in the pelvic region or lower part of the abdomen during the sexual intercourse
- Pain while passing urine
- Unexplained weight loss
- Excessive sweating at night
DiagnosisFollowing diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make the diagnosis. These are
- Complete blood count ( CBC)
- Serum tumour markers
- Tumour biopsy
- Imaging techniques like ultrasonography (USG), CT-scan, MRI, and X-Ray to detect the site, size, and extent of the tumour.
- Pelvic examination through per-speculum examination of the vagina, cervix, and ovaries. A speculum is a gynecological instrument used to visualize the vaginal wall, cervix, uterus, and ovaries to detect any abnormality.
- Surgery is the most common and effective treatment for cervical adenocarcinoma. Other treatment options are chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy.