What is Adenocarcinoma of the Colon with Neuroendocrine Differentiation?Adenocarcinoma of the colon with neuroendocrine differentiation is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that make up the mucus-secreting glands of the colon. It also contains cells that exhibit significant neuronal (nerve cells), endocrine, or mixed features. Colon and rectal cancer is the 3rd most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world and the 4th leading cause of death worldwide. In 30% of patients, it spread to the nearby lymph nodes but the tendency to spread to the distant parts of the body is rare. The five-year survival rate depends on the stage of the tumor and ranges from 89% to 36%.
Disease CausesThere is no well-known cause, but risk factors such as having anal warts, human papillomavirus infection, HIV infection, older age, male gender, cigarette smoking, poor dietary intake with low fibre, and having multiple sexual partners are considered risk factors for developing adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. It is more common in females as compared to males.
Signs and SymptomsSome initial warning signs and symptoms are:
- Change in bowel habits, constipation, diarrhea, or more frequent urge to pass stool.
- Dark colour stool due to the presence of blood in the stool
- Feeling as if the bowels are not empty after defecation.
- Bleeding from the anus
- Pain in the abdomen
- Un explained weight loss
DiagnosisThe following diagnostic tests and procedures can be used to make a diagnosis. These are
- Endoscopic examination of the anus, rectum, and large intestine. Endoscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to visualize the internal organs of the body directly through the endoscope.
- Computed tomography (CT-pelvis)
- Biopsy of the lesion/tumour and histopathological examination